Wednesday, 26 May 2010

Ezinifite-Aguata My case Study Festival

1. Masquerade dance festival -
20 Feb 2010 ... This is the Ojionu-Masquerade in Aguata Igbo land, Biafra, Nigeria, Africa. Nke a bu egwu ojionu nke ndi Ezinifite Aguata nke di na Anambara - Cached
2. "Burn the mmonwu": contradictions and contestations in masquerade ...
22 Dec 2008 ... A notable masquerade, Okue-ekwe ('beater of gong'), was adopted in 1936 from Ezinifite, a neighboring community, by young men at Umueze › ... › African ArtsDecember 22, 2008 - Cached - Similar
3. Videos for ezinifite masquerade

The famous Oji-onu masquerade (ogbamgbada)10 min - 20 Apr

War dancer climbs palm-tree without rope8 min - 29 Aug
4. Masquerade
14 Jul 2009 ... This is the Ojionu-Masquerade in Aguata Igbo land, Biafra, Nigeria, Africa. Nke a bu egwu ojionu nke ndi Ezinifite Aguata nke di na

Tuesday, 25 May 2010

Leter of Consent for Interview and Questionnaires format

University of Greenwich
Business School
Department of Marketing, Event & Tourism.
Old Royal Naval College
Park Row
London SE10 9LS
Telephone: +44 20 8331 8000
24th April,2010.

Mr J. M. Umeakuka.
Chairman ,
Anambra State Tourism Board,

Dear Sir

Letter of consent for interview

My name is Umeokoli Peter, and I am currently preparing my thesis as part of a Masters degree in International Tourism Management at the University of Greenwich, England. My thesis aims to examine whether the development of tourism can be a solution to rural-urban migration, and the village of Ezinifite will be used as a case study focus.

I am planning to conduct interviews with several key local respondents for their views on why people migrate from Ezinifite to urban areas, what problems this causes for the town, and whether there is potential for tourism development to play a role in reversing this trend of rural-urban migration. I am very interested to hear your views on this topic and would be grateful if you would agree to take part in an interview. I am visiting Ezinifite on … dates… to carry out the interviews and would like to organise a meeting time and place that is convenient for you. The interview will last approximately 30 minutes.
The interviews will be recorded, but I guarantee that your views will remain anonymous and will only be used for the purposes of academic research. The results of the study will be made available to you.
I look forward to hearing from you shortly.

Your sincerely

Peter Umeokoli

Key local respondents
(a) Village head (3)
(b) Farmer (1)
(c) Transport owners association (1)
(d) Community president (1)
(e) Traditional ruler of Ezinifite (1)
(f) Oil mile industry (1)
(g) Bar/restaurant (1)
Urban respondent
(a) Tourism board officers (2)
(b) town Planning authority (1)


(A) Migration
1. Can you describe the population changes you have noticed in Ezinifite in recent years?
- have you noticed the population increase or decrease?
- Have you noticed a change in the number of men and women?
- Have you noticed a change in the prosperity of the town?
- When did you notice these changes? Are they still happening now?

2. What do you think are the causes for these changes?
- why are people leaving town?
- What is the economic situation in Ezinifite?
- What is the employment situation in Ezinifite?
- What is encouraging people to migrate to urban areas?

3. What kinds of problems has Ezinifite experienced since these changes?
- are there enough working men?
- are there enough young people? IS there an ageing population?
- what does this mean for the town?
- Has the economy suffered?

4. How do you feel about the situation in Ezinifite?
- does this affect you personally?
- does this affect your business/organisation?

(B) Present Tourism in Ezinifite

5. What do you think are the main industries in the town?
- what makes money?
- What contributes to the economy?

6. What is the largest employer?

7. Do you think that Ezinifite currently has a tourism industry?
- is there anything in Ezinifite that attracts visitors?
- where are these visitors from?
- why are they coming here?
- how long do they stay?
- where do they stay?

8. Can you describe to me any festivals in Ezinifite?
- where are the festival visitors from?
- how long do they stay?
- how many people do you think it attracts?
- how does this festival benefit local economy?
- Do you consider this festival to be a ‘tourist attraction’?
- Do you think it has the potential to attract more visitors from here and abroad?

(C) Tourism as a solution to rural-urban migration.
9. What other aspects of Ezinifite could attract tourists?
- community
- natural features
- local products
- local festivals/events

10. Do you think tourism would have the potential to reverse the trend of rural-urban migration?

(D) Potential tourism developments product.
11. What are your views about the potential of the following tourism products for the town?
(ask about each in turn)
Farm Tourism
Local crafts demonstrations
… a third product?
- do you think any of these tourism products would attract domestic visitors?
- International visitors?
- Do you think they have the potential to contribute significantly to the local economy?
- Do you think they have the potential to reverse – or at least reduce - rural to urban migration?

12. If not tourism, what else do you think would help to reverse rural to urban migration?

Draft Research Proposal

Title:Cultural Tourism the Solution to the Rural-Urban Migration in Developing Countries’?
Objectives:1. To examine the reasons for rural-Urban migration.

2. To investigate the current social- economic conditions in Nigeria.

3. To identify the problems rural-urban migration caused to the study area.

4. Explore the tourism industry in Nigeria

5. To evaluate the potential of cultural tourism in reversing rural-urban.

Literature sources Available
Afolabi, M.(2007) Rural-Urban migration and productivity in the Nigeria agricultural sector: University of Western Ontario.
Agesia,R.U (2001)’Migration and the Urban to Rural Earnings Differences: A sample selection Approach’ Journal of Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 49, 847- 865.
Anderson, L.E (2002) Rural-Urban Migration in Bolivia: Advantages and Disadvantages. Bolivia: Institute for Socio-Economic Research.
Anrı´quez, G and Stloukal, L (2008) rural population change in developing countries: lessons for policymaking; European View (2008) 7:309–317.
Atkinson,H, Marcjanna,M,A, Boxter,I, Beach,J, Bill,K and Buhalis,D (2006)Developing mass tourism in developing nation edited by Beech. J and Chadwick, in ’The Business of Tourism Management, Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Bank, U (1989) The community Tourism Industry Imperatives. State College, PA: Venture Publisher.
Brohman, J. (1996) New Directions in Tourism for Third World Development. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(1), 48–70.
Burns, P.M. (2004) Tourism Planning: A Third World? Annals of Tourism Research, 31(1), 24–43.
Caldwell,J.C(1968)’Determinants of Rural-Urban Migration in Ghana’, Population Study, 12 (3):361-377.
Cravaco,R(1995)’Rural tourism :The Creation of New Tourist Space’, In Montanari,A and Williams, A(eds)European Tourism: Regions, Spaces and Restructuring, Chichester : Wiley and Sons,129-149.
Creswell. J.W (2009)Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches(3rd edn).London :Sage.

Flick, U. (2007) The Designing qualitative research. London: Sage.
Ghauri, P.and Granhang,K( 2005) Research Methods in Business Studies, A Practical Guide (3rd eds) Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Greenwood (1975) Research on internal migration in the United States “Journal of
Economic Literature 13:397-433.
Godfrey,E. M(1969)’Labour Surplus Models and Labour-Deficit Economies: The West African Case’, Economic Development and Cultural Change,17(3)382-391.

Essang,.S. M(1970)’The distribution of earnings in the cocoa economy of west Nigeria: implications for development’ unpublished PhD. Dissertation Michigan state University.
Essang, S.M and Mabawonku, A.F (1974)’Determinants and Impact of Rural-Urban Migration, a case study of selected communities in west Africa’, African Rural Employment Paper no 10.
Hall, C.M (2005) Tourism rethinking the social science of mobility, Harlow: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Harrison, D. (1992) Tourism and the Less Developed Countries, London: Belhaven Press.
Jankowicz,A.D.(1991) Business Research Projects for Students, London ;Champman and Hall.
Lea, J. (1988) Tourism and Development in the Third World, London and New York. Routledge.
Lickorish, J.J. and Jenkins, C.L (2005)An introduction to Tourism: oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
Knight, J.B (1972)’Rural-Urban income comparison and migration in Ghana’ Bulletin of Oxford University institutes of economics and social statistics, 34 (2): 199-228.
MacLeod, N.,(2006)’Cultural tourism; Aspects of Authenticity and commodification’ Smith, M. K., and Robinson, M (Eds.) Cultural Tourism in a Changing World: politics, Participation and (re)presentation. Clevedon: Channel View.
Mair,H.,Reid,D.G and George,W(2005)Globalisation, Rural Tourism and Community Power IN Hall,D,.Kirkpatrick,I and Mitchell,M (eds) Rural Tourism and Sustainable Business. Clevedon: Channel View.
Mabogunje, Akin. (1970)’ migration policy and regional development in Nigeria’ The Nigeria Journal of Economics and Social Studies,12(2) 243-262).
Mowforth, M. And Munt,I.(1998) Tourism and Sustainability: Development and New Tourism in the Third World. London: Routledge,
Novelli, M and Humavindu (2005) wildlife tourism- wildlife use vs local gains: trophy hunting in Namibia edited by Novelli, M in Niche tourism contemporary issues, trends and cases, oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
Oppermann, M.( 1996)’Rural Tourism in Southern Germany’, Annals of Tourism Research23, 1:86-102.
Rourke, B.E and Sakiyi-Gyinea, S.K(1971)’Agricultural AND Urban wage rate in Ghana’, Economic Bulletin of Ghana, 2(1): 3-13.
Reid, D.G. (2003) Tourism, Globalization and Development, London: Pluto Press,
Sabot, R.H (1971)’Urban migration in Tanzania ‘, Unpublished paper, Economic Research Bureau, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam Tanzania.
Richard and Sharpley,J( 1997) Rural Tourism: An Introduction. London: Thomson Press.
Rossman, G .B. and Rallis, S.F (1998) Learning in the Field: An Introduction to Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., and Thornhill. A (2009) Research method for Business student (5th edn).Harlow: Pearson Education
Scheyvens, R. (2002) Tourism for Development: empowering communities. Harlow.
Pearson Education Limited,
Sharpley, R. (2002) Sustainability: a Barrier to Tourism Development, in R. Sharpley and
D.J. Telfer (eds) Tourism and Development:. Clevedon Channel View Publications. Concepts and Issues, 319–337.
Sieber, J.E. (1998) Planning ethically responsible research. In Bickman, L, and Rog, D.J(eds) Handbook of applied social research methods(pp.127-156) .Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Telfer, D.J. (2002) The Evolution of Tourism and Development Theory, in R. Sharpley and D.J. Telfer (eds) Tourism and Development: Clevedon: Channel View Publications Concepts and Issues, 35–78.
Teye, V. (2001 ) Africa, (ed) Lockwood, A and Medlik, S in Tourism and Hospitality in the 21st Century, oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
Wall, G, and Mathieson, A(2006)Tourism change, impacts and opportunities. Harlow: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Warriner,D (1970)’Problem of Rural-Urban Migration: Some Suggestion for Investigation, ‘International Labour Review, 101(5): 441-451.
US Library of Congress, (I982 )’Urbanization’(online)Available from Accessed 12April,2010.
DFID,( 2004 )’Rural-Urban Development Case Study- Nigeria ‘, Oxford Policy Management (online) Available at 167%5CNigeria%20Rural%Urban%Change%20case%20Study RUO173.pdf.Accessed 13April,2010.

World Tourism Organization (2002)’Tourism and Poverty Alleviation. World Tourism Organization, Madrid.
World Tourism Organization (2005)’Tourism and Poverty Alleviation. World Tourism Organization, Madrid.
Research method: ‘Qualitative Method’ Interview.
Source: Peter Umeokoli

Migrant Africa

The history of African migration is as old as the history of the continent. Population movement for political economic religious and security reasons, as well as in response to demographic factors, has been recorded from early times. More recently, however, the patterns, directions and motivations of migration have been deeply affected by the colonial experience, which in turn influenced economic, social, cultural, political and demographic development.
The decision to migrate is trigged first and foremost by economic considerations. People migrate to improve their economic well-being and when they are unable to satisfy their aspirations within the existing opportunity structure in their locality. This does not, of course, apply to those displaced by natural disasters, such as drought or famine, or those fleeing war or political oppression.
Source:Aderanti Adepoju (1992)Migrant Africa available at Accessed 28/03/2010.

Rural-Urban migration in Africa: TheorY, Policies and Research Implication by Derek Byerlee.

Throughout the developing world, countries are experiencing rapid rate of urbanization. In Africa, urban growth are among the highest in the world, averaging about 7 percent annually, with several cities having growth rate in excess of 10 percent.Associated with this urbanisation has been a large increase in open urban unemployment which generally aceeds 10 percent of urban labour force and consists largely of young school leavers.
Rural urban migration accounts for over half the growth of most African cities. At the same time out migration of labor from agriculture has been one factor leading to national food deficits and rising food prices in many African countries. For this reasons, there is wide spread concern that the rate of rura-urban migration should be slowed.
source:International migration review, Vol. 8.No,4.(Winter 1974) pp.546-566. published by: The centre for migration studies of new york . Available at accessed 30/03/2010.

Wednesday, 27 January 2010


Nigeria Land of Divers Culture

Tourism & Culture in Nigeria
Literary Works
Arts & Culture
International Fame
Government Assistance
National Council for Arts and Culture
National Commission for Museum and Monuments
Walls and Ancient Buildings
Nigeria: Enjoy Sights Of A Lifetime.
Hotels and Facilities
Collectively, culture is a way of life in a given society. Tourism is the vehicle through which this way of life is appreciated.
In Nigeria, culture is manifested in art, dance, language, literature, folklore, mores, music, governance, and even the environment. According to archaeological finds, Nigeria’s artifacts depicting the early life of the people date back to 2000 years. The Nok Culture, the earliest of the finds depicted the early life of the people of the Nok region North of the Benue River. The characteristic features of the Nok culture, which flourished from 500, BC to AD 200 is the terracotta figurines associated with it and the extensive use of iron. The source of the knowledge of an iron technology has been attributed to the civilization of ‘Meroe’ in what is today the Republic of Sudan, as well as to Carthage in North Africa.
Arts & Culture
Grass Weaving
Wood Carving
Ivory Carving
Glass and Metal Works
Leather and Calabash
Clothe Weaving
Brass or Bronze Casting is still made but there is nothing produced now to compare with the fabulous Ife and Benin Bronzes. These perfect example of portraiture and the "cire peerdue" method of casting, together with the equally perfect terracotta thought to be of the same period and possibly by the same craftsmen, have no equals anywhere.
Apart from the Benin and Ife bronzes, archaeological finds at Igbo-Ukwu, in Enugu State, have revealed advanced ancient works of art. The Igbo-Ukwu bronzes, which have elaborate intricate symmetrical designs, are as remarkable as the better-known Ife works.
Grass Weaving Because grass is plentiful in the northern parts of Nigeria, northern craftsmen and women make grass baskets, fans, tables and floor mats. Some of the objects are beautifully colored and durable.
Go to Arts and Culture
Wood Carving Though places like Benin and Awka are acknowledged as center of wood-carving, wood carvers have flourished all over southern Nigeria since time immemorial, making figures for shrines, portraiture, masks, representations of the spirits of the field, forest stream, earth, sea, sky, water, fire and thunder. The works of old carvers remain in many villages where they provide the villages with their shrines, utensils and ornaments to this day. Many of the older examples of these products are preserved in the national and other museums.
Go to Arts and Culture
Ivory Carving Ivory carvings have for many years adorned ancestral altars in Benin and the palaces of Nigerian rulers. Ivory carvings are also available in homes and offices as paper knives, inlaid cigar boxes, cigarette holders, ladies earrings, hatpins, necklaces, bangles, and innumerable small pieces of décor.
Go to Arts and Culture
Glass and Metal Works The metal works, glass beads and bangles of Bida are familiar articles to visitors to Nigeria. The bead makers in particular preserve their ancient skills as a family tradition. The metal workers were originally the armored of the north. Their art is now applied to the production of skillfully fashioned and decorated trays, bowls and pots rings, bangles and the like.
Go to Arts and Culture
Leather and Calabash The skin popularly known as Morocco leather comes from goatskin from Sokoto. It was erroneously given the name "Morocco leather" because, until recently, it reached Europe through Moroccan traders who bought them from Nigerian caravan traders across the Sahara Desert. Excellent leatherwork and calabash carvings are produced in Kano and, Oyo.
Go to Arts and Culture
Pottery Excavations have shown that pottery attained a high level of development in Nigeria several hundred years ago. The tradition has been maintained and Nigerian pottery today ranks among the most artistic in the world. The best-known pottery center in the country is Suleja in Niger State. In 1963, a Nigerian pottery worker, the Late Dr. Ladi Kwali, toured Great Britain and Europe to demonstrate the art of pottery making in Nigeria. Products of the Pottery center at Okigwe in Imo State are widely distributed in Nigeria and abroad.
Go to Arts and Culture
Clothe Weaving Another outstanding craft of Nigeria is cloth weaving. The popular Akwete cloth woven in a town of that name in Abia State is fast changing the dress fashion of many women who live in, or come to the country. Produced on a broad loom, Akwete is usually about 1,200 millimeters wide. It is produced in attractive designs and rich colors.
There are also the "Aso-Oke" woven on narrow looms notably at Iseyin in Oyo State, the Ebira weaving at Okene, Kogi State.
Go to Arts and Culture
Painting Apart from such crafts as bronze-casting, wood carving, leather work, pottery and weaving, a form of artistic expression that has quietly gained a stronghold but has not been given its due recognition in Nigeria is painting. As a medium of artistic expression, painting is not completely new in the country. The two groups of rock paintings in Kano and Bauchi are the most important yet found in the country. The Birnin Kudu cattle paintings and symbolic drawings show affinity to some Saharan paintings.
The coloring of masks monochromatically or polychromatically is also a form of painting that has been in existence in Nigeria for as long as the festivals and ceremonies for which such objects were made. Body paintings and decoration for ceremonial rites and festivals are also a common practice in many parts 'of the country. The designs and decorations used in body painting possess esoteric connotations and the human body so painted at times in varied contours, visually becomes a really beautiful "living art piece".
Another form of artistic expression closely akin to painting that has been in practice in the country for a long time is the multicolored decoration of the inner and outer walls of houses with beautiful and elaborate symbols and designs. Some of such designs have their origin in the Islamic influence on Nigerian culture and are popular in the northern parts of the country.
Go to Arts and Culture
International Fame Those who have gained prominence at home and abroad in this field within a relatively short time include Ben Enwonwu, well known for his landscapes, Simon Okeke, E. O. Okebolu, Erhabor Emokpae, Bruce Onobrakpeya, Ayo Ajayi, Felix Idubor, Muraina Oyelami, Twin Seven-Seven and a host of others. A large number of the works of these Nigerian painters can be found in many galleries and private collections in Nigeria and abroad.
Though it is just a little over 80 years since the first acclaimed modern painter emerged in Nigeria, painting as an art form has become so popular that apart from regular one-man or joint exhibitions held abroad by individuals or groups, some artists have emerged to form a "school" or "movement". For instance, the Oshogbo Movement has gained global identification by breaking fresh grounds with fruitful experimentation.
While most Nigerian painters started their career with such traditional means as oil, charcoal, pencil, pen or watercolor, a number of innovators and experimentalists among them have widened the dimensions and horizons of fine arts in and out of the country.
Works in the new areas have been classified as bronzed Iino relief, into cut, deep etching, print, collage, bead-mach pointillism, etc. The scope for experimentation seems limitless and the future of fine arts looks very promising with the continued development of the country.
The Yankari National park is the premier game reserve in Nigeria. Yankari is located around the Gagi River, approximately 1 ½ hours by the road, southeast of Bauchi Town. The beauty and size of the Yankari Game Reserve make it the most popular reserve in Nigeria. Set up in 1956 and opened to the public in 1962, the main Game –viewing areas of the reserve are open all year round. Japanese, Western Europeans, Americans and Southeast Asian tourist visit the park. The reserve covers 2,058 sq. km. of savanna woodland and is well-stocked with elephant, baboons, waterbucks, bushbuck, oribi, crocodile, hippopotamus, roan antelope, buffalo, & various types of monkeys. Lions are occasionally spotted as well, despite their natural camouflage. The best time to visit is between November and May, when tourist are likely to see more game since the dense vegetation has dried out and the animals congregate around the rivers.
Coconut Beach Coconut Beach is a beautiful beach in the coastal town of Badagry, west of Lagos. The beach is attractively set in an area surrounded by coconut trees. About 20 miles towards the border of Nigeria and the Republic of Benin, Coconut Beach is accessible through the Lagos-Badagry expressway. Visitors will find a friendly relaxed atmosphere. And it can be fun any time of the year people visit this beach from all over the world.
Go to Top
Government Assistance The Federal and State governments of Nigeria have always shown keen interest in the development of arts and crafts as a source of employment and means of developing aptitude and have given every possible assistance to the industry. The governments encourage the formation of cooperative societies to advise on the best way of increasing production and sales, and help to arrange exhibitions both in Nigeria and abroad. As a further step towards the development of arts and crafts, governments have opened art schools and colleges, such as the College of Technology, Yaba and the School of Fine Arts at the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, where students can develop their talents under the guidance of qualified instructors, Many of the students are sponsored by the government or private organizations. Government has also established various agencies for the coordination promotion and preservation of the Arts. Below are some of them:
Go to Top
National Council for Arts and Culture The National Council for Arts and Culture (NCAC) was established by Decree No. 3 of 1975 after the dissolution of the former Nigerian Arts Council. It started operations in and African Arts and Civilization (CBAAC), is the custodian of cultural materials for Black and African peoples all over the world. The institution is a vital Center for the study, propagation and promotion of understanding of Black and African ideals and civilization.
Its core collection consists of all the unique and rare archival, library, audio-visual and museum materials deposited for safe keeping with the Nigerian Government, by the 59 Black and African Governments which participated in the FESTAC '77. The materials, being preserved, utilized and augmented, represent the invaluable contributions made by the intellectuals, writers and artists who were the moving spirits behind the execution of FESTAC '77.
The Center was officially declared open on 22nd June 1978, and has been declared a depository for UNESCO books, documents, etc. All the materials in the Center are distributed into four components, namely Archives, Library, Audio Visual and Museum Divisions. Among the collections in its museum is an exhibition on "African and the Origin of Man", an invaluable discovery which provides material evidence that AFRICA IS THE CRADLE OF MAN.

Go to Top
National Commission for Museum and Monuments The National Commission controls the registration and clearance for export of antiquities as well as arts and crafts (even newly made) for Museums and Monuments. There are severe penalties for attempting to export antiquities without a permit issued by the National Commission for Museum and Monuments. Export permits can be obtained at any of the National Museums in the country. The clearance permit serves as a conclusive part that an object is not an antiquity. Permits for export of antiquities should be directed, and with as much notice as possible, to the Director-General, National Commission for Museums and Monuments, National Museum, Lagos or to the Director-general, through the Curator and head of station of the National Museum in the state in which the applicant is located.
Go to Top
Walls and Ancient Buildings City Wall and Moat, Benin City These are the most impressive city walls and moats in southern Nigeria. At their highest point, the walls were nine metros high and the moat (ditch) nine metros deep, making a total incline of 18 metros. Unfortunately in the past few years, the walls and moats has been the victim of extensive soil excavation used as a source of building materials.
City Wall, Zaria The Zaria City wall perhaps remains the best preserved among the cities of northern Nigeria. The need for defensive walls has disappeared since the occupation by the British of the Western Sudan at the beginning of this century. Moreover, the rains of over 50 wet seasons have battered down the tall mud walls rampant in this part of the country. The walls of Zaria, which circumnavigate the city, are between 14 and 16 kilometers long and are pierced by eight gates.
Gobirau Minaret, Katsina This imposing minaret, or tower which originally is said to be some 120 metros tall and which was built of mud and palm timbers, is all that remains of the mosque constructed in Habe times, before the holy wars of Sheik Unman Dan Fodio. Parts of the 15.25-meter tower are thought to be about 250 years old.
Chief Ogiamen's House, Benin City This building is protected under the Antiquities Act of 1953 principally because of its architectural eminence as a fine example of Benin traditional architecture. It has an elaborate system of court yards and altars. It is a chief's house and was probably built before the 1897 British expedition against Benin. The big fire that gutted the city following the British invasion did not affect the building.
Foot Bridge, Kaduna This is an interesting example of indigenous engineering before the advent of roads and railways in Nigeria. The bridge was originally erected by Lord Lugard at Zungeru in 1904 and re-erected in 1954 in the Kaduna Gardens.
Nigeria: Enjoy Sights Of LifeTime
Nigeria, with a land mass of over 356,000 square miles is a country with spectacular sights ,a wide range of fauna and exciting places for vacationing, exploration and sightseeing. The country is blessed with tropical rain forests, savannah grasslands, mangrove swamps and the sahel savannah near the Sahara.
Visitors to Nigeria will be thrilled by the marvels of nature that abound in the land, rare, amazing plants and animals seen only on special television programmes or magazines. These plants and animals live in their natural habitats undisturbed by man. Nature has also endowed Nigeria with many natural resources and with some of the wonders of the natural world, which can be viewed by visitors to those locations.
Natural Tourist Atractions
Nigeria’s prime natural tourist attractions include the following:
Ikogosi Warm Springs – this is a natural warm spring that flows and mixes with cold water issuing from another spring. This place attracts tourists from all over the world.
Owu Falls – located in Kwara State of Nigeria, it is the steepest natural waterfall in West Africa and is surrounded by a tropical rainforest in which can be found a wide range of animals and plants not seen in other parts of the world.
Niger-Benue Confluence – This is where the Rivers Niger and Benue join at Lokoja. It can be toured on available boats, on canoes or viewed from a closeby hill giving a panoramic view of the confluence.
Assop Falls – located about 40 miles from Jos city, it is a lovely place for picnicking, swimming and enjoying the grand view of the scenic landscape.
Wikki Warm Springs – Deep inside the Yankari Game Reserve is this warm water spring that stays the same warm temperature day and night.
With a coastline of about 350 miles, Nigeria has natural sites with tropical coconuts, mangrove and other seaside vegetation for vacationers and visitors to enjoy the Atlantic. Several beaches are open to visitors including Badagry, Lekki, Bar, Eleko, Calabar etc
Festivals To See
The display of the full culture and heritage of the people of Nigeria is usually colourful, exciting and memorable. Periodic festivals of the people include the following which tourists will find remarkable and interesting:
EYO FESTIVAL: Eko people of Lagos holds annually and usually culminates in the display of masquerades adorned resplendently in white flowing dresses and hats to match.
KWA-GHIR FESTIVAL: A festival of the Tiv people in Benue state of Nigeria, it is a display of traditional masquerades, puppet theater, some forms of acrobatics, dancing, music and sartorial display. A colourful festival indeed, it attracts many people and is accentuated by the friendliness and warm welcome of the Tiv people of Nigeria.
THE DURBAR: This is usually a festival culminating in a horse race at the behest of an Emir, a traditional ruler. With roots in the Islamic way of life, the Durbar is colourful, exciting and open to all to watch.
ARGUNGU FISHING FESTIVAL: Argungu is located in Sokoto state in the North Western part of Nigeria. It is famous for its fishing festival in which a lake is stocked with fish which are fed until the time of the festival. Individuals go into the lake without the aid of boats and the competition goes to the one with the largest catch. This festival is international and attracts visitors from all over the world.
ARGUNGU MOTOR RALLY: As part of the fishing festival, car manufacturers and marketers have organised the annual motor rally in which cars go through an endurance race over country roads. Notable names like Toyota, Mercedes and Peugeot feature in the rally.
BOAT REGATTA: The Izons and other peoples of the Niger Delta Area have festivals that include extremely colourful boat regattas and water races. Canoe races are also a feature and visitors are attracted to these from various parts of the world.
NEW YAM FESTIVAL OF THE IGBOS: The new yam festival is rooted in the ancient worship of the gods of the land for a fruitful harvest. Modernised and still as flamboyant as ever, the festival holds around August and features masquerades, traditional dances, wrestling competitions and other sporting and gaming events.
Tourists And Vacation Sites
KAINJI LAKE GAME RESERVE: See elephants, lions, hippos and crocodiles in their natural habitats. Also visit the craft shops at Wawa and enjoy the delicate cuisine of the local communities. This game reserve is located in Niger and Kwara states of Nigeria.
ESIE MUSEUM: this museum displays terracotta artifacts and figurines dating from the 13th to the 16th century and shown to be doing various things from dancing to weaving. The Esie Museum is located in Esie town, about 100km from Ilorin in Kwara State.
GOLF COURSES: Nigeria has many golf courses where vacationers can get the best of games surrounded by the grandest views of nature. Golf courses include the IBB Golf Course in Abuja, Lamingo in Jos, and others in Ewekoro, Ikeja, Ilorin, Ibadan and other parts of Nigeria.
ROCK PAINTINGS OF BIRNIN KUDU: Reputed to be thousands of years old, these painting depict the lifestyle of the people that inhabited that area of Jigawa State in times gone by.
OBUDU CATTLE RANCH: The ranch is located in Cross River state of Nigeria and has near temperate climate owing to its location on high hills. As a tourist attraction, it has a waterfall, a gorilla habitat, and opportunities to see a variety of birds.
Visitors to Nigeria will find a warm welcome from the people. Airlines have regular shuttle flights from Lagos to the major tourist and commercial centres of the country. Hotels and guest houses also provide excellent local and international cuisine as desired by visitors.
source ;

Tourism Research on Visitor Motivation

I choosed National Maritime Museum as my well known destination for my questionnaire on visitor motivations.
A theme of Tourism Research.
1, what is your name?
2, why are you here?
3, where do you come from?
4,How did you know about this place?
5,Like how much do you spend to be here?
6,Are there meeters and greeters?
7,How do they welcome you?
8,Do you enjoy your visit? if yes, which area do you enjoy most ......., if No comment .............
9,Will you like to visit again in future?
10,Do you have any observation you think that might be useful for the management?